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Prof. Dr. Fee-Alexandra Haase: ´Transfer of information and hetorical figuration - Limits of speech communication.


3. The rhetoric tradition of speech: How to use he rose in speeches

This historic review gives us an overview of the elements of rhetoric and syntactic, semiotic and pragmatic speech. Classical rhetoric divides the process of persuasion into five canons: Invention as the search for persuasive ways to present information and formulate arguments. Arrangement as the organization of the parts of a presentation is the second canon the third canon. Style is for the use of a formed language. Memory, the fifth canon, is the canon for the use of mnemonics. Delivery is the presentation of the message with effective gestures and vocal modulation. Figures of speech used for the style are any deviation either in thought or expression from an ordinary and simple method of speaking or writing (thought figures and single word figures). The figures of speech are typically categorized under the third of these canons of rhetoric.

The study of style began in ancient Greece with the introduction of democracy and the need for public speakers. In this democracy the citizens were required to speak for themselves in order to defend or accuse. Therefore speaking and persuading was taught by logographs, later by sophists and rhetoricians. In order to produce an effective text the speaker/author incorporates the five canons of rhetoric in her/his composition. These elements are already mentioned above as invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. The first canon, invention, is a process that helps the speaker to find his ideas. A rhetorical system is an organized body of knowledge about communication. It consists of theory, teaching, practice, and criticism. Three great rhetorical systems arose to meet the communication needs of the people living during certain historical periods. The classical system dominated the intellectual world from about 500 B.C. to 1400 A.D. The modern system developed from 1400 to 1900 A.D.. The 18th century demonstrates in Europe the moderate conditions of rhetoric as opposition to an action science giving a new, scientifically oriented truth. The contemporary system began about 1900 and is still developing today. Rhetoric is in general the art