Prof. Dr. Fee-Alexandra Haase: "Style and Styles"
Modern linguistics and rhetoric
Tropes follow in the transferred sense of word to the place of the actual designation. Strictly definied the tropes represent lexems with a connotation of the other lexems not mentioned expressis verbis. With word figures (tropes) one deviates consciously from the direct sense of a word, e.g. by repetition, modification or amassment of words or word sequences with the same or similar meaning. The tropes are part of the rhetorical figure teachings. (8) Rhetorical figures and tropes are standardized deviations from natural speech. Figures are to direct the attention to the affect production of the statement. The elocution (rhetorical style theory) uses a code for finding language figures both in the rhetorical as well as in the esthetical context use. The language figures are for an indication used syntactically, pragmatically and semantically. According to standard theories the deviation from everyday life language, the pragmatic class by the deviation from usual communication, and the semantic class by deviations from the usual reference character of the language characterize the syntactic class. They form three fundamental forms of secondarity of the rhetorical language, which in each case is communicative and referential secondary grammar. (9)
Secondary level Words with connotated meanings
Primary level Words without meaning
Style levels of the simple style and the rhetorical style
Stylistics is the theory and science of the organization of linguistic expressions. This partial discipline of linguistics at the border between literature science and esthetics examines the rules of selection and combination of linguistics. Stylistics as pragmatic guideline investigates in different genre styles, e.g. group styles and individual styles. The spectrum of stylistics covers three levels: Methodical stylistics is arranged as a procedure of the text analysis and description of literary works; the normative or practical stylistics gives guidance to a functional writing style; the descriptive stylistics analyses or describes at the same time or successively arising styles and puts them in relationship to text characteristics.
As a normative concept style concepts were used for the production of literature up to the 18th century in Western literature. In the renaissance Dante writes in De varietate stili eorum, qui poetice scribunt of his work De vulgari eloquentia (liber II, caput IV, 1) that the higher style (stilus superior) is for tragedy and the low style (stilus inferior) for the comedy, while for the elegy the style of the miserable ones is taken. If it is however tragically than it t is moderately low and popular used; [...] if it is in form of an elegy, then it suits us to select only the low style:
5. per tragoediam superiorem stilum inducimus, per comoediam inferiorem, per elegiam stilum intelligimus miserorum. 6.si tragice canenda videntur, tunc assumendum est vulgare illustre, et per consequens cantionem <oportet> ligare. si vero comice, tunc quandoque mediocre quandoque humile vulgare sumatur; et huius discretionem in quarto huius reservamus ostendere. si autem elegiace, solum humile oportet nos sumere. (10)
Cf.: Vivian, B.: Style, Rhetoric, and Postmodern Culture. In: Philosophy and rhetoric. 2002. Vol. 35.
T. 3. Pp. 223-243. P. 230ff.
9. Cf. as introduction: Fleischer, Wolfgang; Michel, Georg; Starke, Günter: Stilistik der deutschen Gegenwartssprache.
Frankfurt am Main 1993. Seidler, Herbert: Allgemeine Stilistik. Göttingen 1963.
9. Cf. as introduction:
Fleischer, Wolfgang; Michel, Georg; Starke, Günter: Stilistik der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Frankfurt am Main 1993.
Seidler, Herbert: Allgemeine Stilistik. Göttingen 1963.