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Prof. Dr. Fee-Alexandra Haase: "Style and Styles"


Paul writes (2. Abt., XIV. Prog., 76-78 XIV) in the Programm über den Stil oder die Darstellung that according to Buffon the style is man himself (‚der Stil ist der Mensch selber ist"): (12)

Wie jedes Volk sich in seiner Sprache, so malt jeder Autor sich in seinem Stile. (13)

Stylistics developed toward the end of the 19th century from rhetoric and its theory of normative style principles to a phenomenon of individualized work of a speaker/writer. Central categories of stylistics became the expression of the author and super-individual categories like national, history and social context. Style became a starting point of the work-immanent interpretation of a author. Characteristic linguistic usage of a text in a certain speaker"s style appears in a more or less controlled selection of linguistic meanings. Stylistics uses in its style definitions changes or other aspects at the basis and according to different objectives and developed description procedures. (14) Karl Marx notices in the Bemerkungen er die neueste preu sche Zensurinstruktion:

Le style c"est l"homme - By style you recognizes the person. Indeed! The law allows me to write - but: Shall I write in a style different to my own?

Le style c"est l"homme - Am Stil erkennt man den Menschen. Und wie! Das Gesetz gestattet, das ich schreiben soll, nur soll ich einen anderen als meinen Stil schreiben! (15)

Style is in the broadest sense the characteristic, uniform expression and organizational way of a piece of art, in which an esthetical goal and organization strength are the creative unite next to the individual artist"s qualities as the creator (individual style), its condition and nationality (national style), its local area or origin, the ´taste of the time´ (epochal style), and models as the used forms (generic style). (16) In the 19th century stylistics became a composition principle of speech and literature by the aesthetics and expression of a paradigm change, which was introduced by Baumgarten´s Aisthetica. All these functions can be present in only one message. Esthetics (Greek, from aistanesthai "to notice") is occupied with an interest in the beautiful and its perception in its developments as natural beautiful and as artificial beautiful. Rhetorical figures are in literature and linguistics all language figurations deviating from the normal linguistic usage, which are used in order to emphasize or to it otherwise special reproduction lend a thought by particularly artful decoration. Nietzsche writes in Der Wanderer und sein Schatten (1880) about the "grand style", which is -according to Nietzsche - derived from esthetical categories (and no longer from categories of the rhetoric):

96 The Great Style. -

The great Style is created, when the beautiful wins over the sublime.

Notes on language and style 1828

In the year 1814 in glorious memory I was as the editor of a political magazine so lucky to stand under the pedagocical command of an omnipotent director of the police and censor.

Zurück zum Text  12. Http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:RtLaBWKeQNUJ:gutenberg.spiegel.de/.

fechner/vaestht2/vaesth26.htm+stilistik+figuren&hl=de&ie=UTF-8.

Zurück zum Text  13. Paul, Jean: Vorschule der Ästhetik.

Http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/jeanpaul/vorschul/vors2e1.htm 11-08-2002.

Zurück zum Text  14. Linn, Marie Luise: Studien zur deutschen Rhetorik und Stilistik im 19. Jahrhundert. Marburg 1963. Pp. 45-63.

Zurück zum Text  15. Marx, Karl: Bemerkungen über die neueste preußische Zensurinstruktion.

Http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/marx/schrift1/me01_003.htm.

Zurück zum Text  16. For the methods of style analysis see:

Hoover, D. L.: Statistical Stylistics and Authorship Attribution. An Empirical Investigation. In: Literary and linguistic computing. 2001. Vol. 16. T. 4. Pp. 421-444. P. 430ff.

Simpson, P.; Hall, G.: Discourse analysis and stylistics. In: Annual review of applied linguistics. 2002. Vol. 22. Pp. 136-149. P. 140ff.

Barry, Peter: The limitations of stylistics. In: Essays in criticism. a quarterly journal of literary criticism. 1988. Vol. 38. N. 3. Pp. 175-189. P. 177ff.

 

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